# 4 SQL: Create and fill a new database

In this chapter, we will introduce the Data Definition Language (DDL) and will create a new database from scratch. In particular, we will use the following Entity Relationship diagram that describes a fictional music label called NoFuture records:

As per the diagram:

• Each musician that records at NoFuture has an SSN, a name, an address, and a phone number.
• Each instrument used in songs recorded at NoFuture has a unique identification number, a description (e.g., guitar, synthesizer, ﬂute) and a musical key (e.g., C, B-ﬂat, E-ﬂat).
• Each album recorded at NoFuture has a unique identification number, a title, a recording date, and a format (e.g., Vinyl, CD, Digital, Multiple).
• Each song recorded at NoFuture has a unique identification number, a title, lyrics, a recording date, and any other additional details.
• Each musician may play several instruments, and a given instrument may be played by several musicians.
• Each album includes multiple songs.
• Each song may appear on (at most) one album.
• Each song is performed by one or more musicians, and a musician may perform a number of songs.

## 4.1 Connect to a DBMS through RStudio

The first thing we need to do is to connect to our database from RStudio. For this process, we will need to install three new packages:

install.packages("DBI")
install.packages("odbc")
install.packages("RODBC")

Then, we will need to load these packages along with the tidyverse package in our environment:

library(DBI)
library(odbc)
library(RODBC)
library(tidyverse)

Now, we are ready to explore what drivers our system offers for connecting to a database:

unique(odbcListDrivers()[[1]])
## [1] "ODBC Drivers"            "ODBC Connection Pooling"
## [3] "MySQL Driver"

The output of function odbcListDrivers()[[1]] will be different in your systems.

In general, to connect to a database management system we need 4 parameters:

• Host address (server address): The IP or the URL of the DBMS.
• Port: The port number that the DBMS is accepting connections.

Once we have this information, we can call the dbConnect function from the DBI package to create a connection object:

con = DBI::dbConnect(odbc::odbc(),
Driver= "MySQL",
Server='mysql-isys3350.bc.edu',
Port= 3306)

You will need to edit the above code to work for your case. Specifically, you will need to (1) replace MySQL Driver with the MySQL driver as printed out by the odbcListDrivers()[[1]] command; (2) replace Sys.getenv("dbisys3350host") with the URL of the DBMS; (3) replace Sys.getenv("dbisys3350user") with your username; (4) replace Sys.getenv("dbisys3350pass") with your password; (5) replace Sys.getenv("dbisys3350port") with the DBMS port.

I will be providing more information on Canvas on how to connect to our DBMS from within RStudio cloud.

## 4.2CREATE

### 4.2.1 Create a new schema

To create a new schema we can use the CREATE command:

In order to create your own schema, replace kokkodis_student with your last name in the following commands.

CREATE SCHEMA kokkodis_student_no_future;

Recall that the term schema is synonymous to the term databasde.

It is a good practie to finish each SQL statement with the semicolon ;.

To run SQL commands within an R Mardkown file you will need to create an SQL chunk by typing {sql connection=con} and then close it with three left quotes .

Alternatively, you can click on the Insert a new code chunk button and choose SQL.

Now let’s see if the new database we just created shows up. We can view all the available databses in a DBMS as follows:

show databases;
Table 4.1: 5 records
Database
information_schema
isys3350
kokkodis_student_db
kokkodis_student_no_future
music_marketplace

### 4.2.2 Create new tables

Once we have the new schema, we can enrich it with new tables through the CREATE TABLE statement:

CREATE TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician (
SSN INT,
name VARCHAR(45),
phone INT,
musician_id VARCHAR(45),
PRIMARY KEY (musician_id)
);

We can see whether we actually created this table in our schema with the show tables statement:

show tables in  kokkodis_student_no_future;
Table 4.2: 1 records
Tables_in_kokkodis_student_no_future
musician

And we can further inspect a table with the show columns statement:

show columns in  kokkodis_student_no_future.musician;
Table 4.3: 5 records
Field Type Null Key Default Extra
SSN int(11) YES NA
name varchar(45) YES NA
phone int(11) YES NA
musician_id varchar(45) NO PRI NA

### 4.2.3 Datatypes in SQL

The above CREATE statement has the general form:

CREATE TABLE database_name.table_name (
column_name_1 data_type
[, column_name_2 data_type] /*optional*/
[, table_constraints] /*optional*/
)

In SQL a comment is surrounded by /* and */.

Similar to R, SQL has data types. Each column we add in a new table needs to have a data type. The most common data types that we will use are:

• VARCHAR(M): Stores variable-length strings up to M characters
• INT: Stores integers
• DOUBLE: Stores floating-point numbers
• DATETIME: Stores a date and a time. Its default format is yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss
• TEXT: Stores text of up to 65KB

### 4.2.4 Constraints

In the generic CREATE statement there is an optional clause for including table-specific constraints. This is where we can define our primary keys, foreign keys, and any other constraints we want to impose on the table. For instance, in our example, we included the constraint PRIMARY KEY (musician_id) that identifies column musician_id as the primary key of the new table.

The syntax to define a foreign key is as follows:

[CONSTRAINT constraint_name]
FOREIGN KEY (column_name)
REFERENCES database_name.table_name (column_name)

We will see examples of foreign key definitions in Section 4.5.

## 4.3ALTER

Once we have created a table, we can make changes by using the ALTER statement. For instance, we can add a new column as follows:

ALTER TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician
ADD genre VARCHAR(30);
show columns in  kokkodis_student_no_future.musician;
Table 4.4: 6 records
Field Type Null Key Default Extra
SSN int(11) YES NA
name varchar(45) YES NA
phone int(11) YES NA
musician_id varchar(45) NO PRI NA
genre varchar(30) YES NA

Similarly, we can drop a column from the table:

ALTER TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician
DROP COLUMN genre;
show columns in  kokkodis_student_no_future.musician;
Table 4.5: 5 records
Field Type Null Key Default Extra
SSN int(11) YES NA
name varchar(45) YES NA
phone int(11) YES NA
musician_id varchar(45) NO PRI NA

We can also add and drop constraints:

ALTER TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician
DROP PRIMARY KEY;
show columns in  kokkodis_student_no_future.musician;
Table 4.6: 5 records
Field Type Null Key Default Extra
SSN int(11) YES NA
name varchar(45) YES NA
phone int(11) YES NA
musician_id varchar(45) NO NA
ALTER TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician
ADD PRIMARY KEY (musician_id);
show columns in  kokkodis_student_no_future.musician;
Table 4.7: 5 records
Field Type Null Key Default Extra
SSN int(11) YES NA
name varchar(45) YES NA
phone int(11) YES NA
musician_id varchar(45) NO PRI NA

Note the PRI identifier in column Key that identifies the primary key (if any) of a table.

## 4.4DROP

We can drop a table with the DROP command as follows:

DROP TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician;
show tables in  kokkodis_student_no_future;
Table 4.8: 0 records
Tables_in_kokkodis_student_no_future

Now sometimes, when designing a database, we might need to drop and re-create a table multiple times. In those cases–and in cases where we are not certain that a table we want to drop exists–we can use the IF EXISTS modifier as follows:

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS kokkodis_student_no_future.musician;

## 4.5 Create all tables

Next, we will create all tables listed in the ERD digram of Figure 4.1:

CREATE TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician (
SSN INT,
name VARCHAR(45),
phone INT,
musician_id VARCHAR(45),
PRIMARY KEY (musician_id)
);
CREATE TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.instrument (
description VARCHAR(100),
instrument_id INT,
music_key VARCHAR(2),
PRIMARY KEY (instrument_id)
);
CREATE TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.album (
title VARCHAR(100),
album_id INT,
album_format VARCHAR(45),
recording_date DATETIME NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (album_id)
);

Note below the definition of foreign keys.

CREATE TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.song (
title VARCHAR(100),
song_id INT,
details VARCHAR(100),
lyrics TEXT,
recording_date DATETIME,
album_id INT,
PRIMARY KEY (song_id),
CONSTRAINT fk_Song_Album
FOREIGN KEY (album_id)
REFERENCES kokkodis_student_no_future.album (album_id)
);
CREATE TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician_has_instrument (
musician_id VARCHAR(45),
instrument_id INT,
PRIMARY KEY (musician_id, instrument_id),
CONSTRAINT fk_musician_id
FOREIGN KEY (musician_id)
REFERENCES kokkodis_student_no_future.musician (musician_id),
CONSTRAINT instrument_id
FOREIGN KEY (instrument_id)
REFERENCES kokkodis_student_no_future.instrument (instrument_id)
);
CREATE TABLE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician_has_song (
musician_id VARCHAR(45),
song_id INT,
PRIMARY KEY (musician_id, song_id),
CONSTRAINT fk_musician_id_2
FOREIGN KEY (musician_id)
REFERENCES kokkodis_student_no_future.musician (musician_id),
CONSTRAINT fk_song_id
FOREIGN KEY (song_id)
REFERENCES kokkodis_student_no_future.song (song_id)
);
show tables in  kokkodis_student_no_future;
Table 4.9: 6 records
Tables_in_kokkodis_student_no_future
album
instrument
musician
musician_has_instrument
musician_has_song
song

## 4.6 Load data into tables

Once we define a table, we can use the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements to fill it with data.

### 4.6.1INSERT

We can use the INSERT statement to add a new row in our table:

INSERT INTO kokkodis_student_no_future.musician VALUES
(123456789, 'Kokkodis', ' 140 Commonwealth Ave', 123456789, 1);

As we will discuss next in Section 2.3.5.1, we can use the SELECT clause to retrieve rows from a table as follows:

SELECT * FROM kokkodis_student_no_future.musician;
Table 4.10: 1 records
123456789 Kokkodis 140 Commonwealth Ave 123456789 1

As you can see, in the previous example, we have successfully loaded a single row.

We can also insert multiple rows as follows:

INSERT INTO kokkodis_student_no_future.musician VALUES
(123456789, 'John', ' ',NULL , 2),
(NULL, 'Doe', ' ', 123456789, 3)
;

Note that in SQL we identify missing data with the special keyword NULL. (Recall that in R we use NA).

Let us see the results:

SELECT * FROM kokkodis_student_no_future.musician;
Table 4.11: 3 records
123456789 Kokkodis 140 Commonwealth Ave 123456789 1
123456789 John NA 2
NA Doe 123456789 3

### 4.6.2UPDATE

We can update an existing row in a table with the UPDATE statement as follows:

UPDATE kokkodis_student_no_future.musician
SET  SSN = 1
WHERE musician_id=3
;
SELECT * FROM kokkodis_student_no_future.musician
Table 4.12: 3 records
123456789 Kokkodis 140 Commonwealth Ave 123456789 1
123456789 John NA 2
1 Doe 123456789 3

We discuss the WHERE clause in detail in Section 5.1.2.

### 4.6.3DELETE

Finally, we can delete a row that we no longer need with the DELETE statement:

DELETE from kokkodis_student_no_future.musician
WHERE musician_id=3
;
SELECT * FROM kokkodis_student_no_future.musician
Table 4.13: 2 records